INDEPENDENT? Tanzania,s challenges since Uhuru At “Uhuru” most Tanzania’s alive today were not yet born. But independent Tanzania is nevertheless a young nation; less than 50 years old. For the young majority Tanzania has been independent throughout their lifetime. But for the older ones, memories of dreams and aspirations at the time of Uhuru are still fresh. This is an attempt to describe the history and challenges facing Tanzania since Uhuru through the voices and memories of Tanzania’s who are old enough to remember, still active enough to take part in society and still with visions and ideas about the challenges Tanzania faces today. It is a story of setbacks and disappointments, but also of pride. Much has gone wrong since 1961,but peace and harmony have been preserved and developed. Tanzania is today a country of development and economic growth, though not really sufficient to reduce poverty. The book is also a story about the many challenges facing today,s Tanzania. There are millions more people; growing economic polarization and marginalization; a huge unemployment problem; hardly any agricultural development; degradation of natural resources and a very insufficient educational system. Among the Tanzanias interviewed for the book are former vice president Rashid Kawawa, former prime minister Joseph Warioba,Head of the Mwalimu Nyerere Foundation Joseph Butiku,Bishop Lukanima Fortunatus,Secretary General Alhaj Othman Ntarru from BAKWATA,former regional commissioner James Luhanga,Professor Issa Shivji,head of the law faculty at University of Dar es Salaam. But ordinary Tanzanians-farmers,workers,grandfathers and grandmothers, active and retired civil servants – are also among those interviewed. The statement are used thematically in chapters focusing on various challenges that have faced Tanzania:From socialism to capitalism and from the role of the family to the importance of religion. There is a strong focus on the limitation of independence. Tanzania is independent, but there is no true independence in a globalized world..